The original range of wild cows was northern Africa, Europe and southern Asia. Cows were domesticated between 10,000 and 6,500 years ago by cultures great distances from each other. Typical western cattle are from the older strain, which was most likely first domesticated in Turkey.
The most genetically diverse population of cattle is found in the Taurus Mountains of Turkey, which strongly indicates that cattle were first domesticated there. There is evidence of domesticated cattle remains in China at around the same time, about 10,000 years ago, but it is unclear if these cattle were traded from Turkey or native to China. What is known is that domesticated cattle from Turkey spread to Europe and Africa,
The Pleistocene Epoch is typically defined as the time period that began about 2.6 million years ago and lasted until about 11,700 years ago. The most recent Ice Age occurred then, as glaciers covered huge parts of the planet Earth. Evidence has shown that wild cows roamed this period, classed as a slow moving prey species.
Cattle are prey species. Their eyes are located on the sides of their heads, allowing them to capture movement around them. But they take longer to focus on specific objects. Their excellent peripheral vision creates a panorama effect on their sides. Their hearing tends to be sensitive to high-pitched noises, dairy breeds more so than beef breeds.
The cow has always been part of the bio sphere and Archaeologists and biologists are agreed that there is strong evidence for two distinct domestication events from aurochs in the near east about 10,500 years ago,
Most mammals, including humans, can tolerate milk as infants, but after weaning, they lose that ability. Only about 35% of people in the world are able to digest milk sugars as adults without discomfort, a trait called lactase persistence so the herd cow was used for meat and clothing.
The 18th century saw the birth of the first breed Systematic, selective breeding and genetic isolation finally led to the development of hundreds of different breeds, which over time became also integral parts of local tradition highland, welsh black, Aberdeen Angus.
Herbivores, cattle feed primarily on grasses and stems. To pull up grass or a plant, a bovine twists its tongue around the plant and cuts it off with its bottom teeth. In place of upper incisors, a bovine has “dental pads” ideal for grinding coarse grasses and other plant materials. The bovine is a ruminant, possessing a four-chambered stomach. The four chambers are the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. Food first goes through the rumen and reticulums, where bacteria help break it down into cud, substance cattle regurgitate and chew again. Then the food goes through the omasum and into the abomasum. This digestive process can take 70 to 100 hours
Humans have survived ice ages and deadly pandemics to become the dominant species on Earth, even if our reign over the planet barely represents a blip in a geological record that has seen countless living organisms come and go. We have adapted to live almost anywhere, Cows, for instance, are easily domesticated.
For many centuries, smallpox devastated mankind
An estimated 300 million people died from smallpox in the 20th century alone ,
inserted pus extracted from a cowpox pustule on the hand of a milkmaid, into an incision on the arm of an eight-year-old boy, James Phipps and the vaccine was born.
Would the Human race had survived without the Cow ?